1860Baseball becomes popular in New York and Boston.British Open Golf Championship started.Christopher Sholes, American inventor invents a typewriter.The Pony Express makes its first run.1861Kansas becomes a state of U.S.Washington Peace Convention tries to establish peace within the Union but Congress of Montgomery forms Confederate States of America with Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina.Abraham Lincoln inaugurated 16th President of U.S.Confederates take Fort Sumter. The outburst of the Civil War begins.Confederate victory at Bull Run.Dickens' "Great Expectations" published.Daily weather forecasts begin in Britain.U.S. introduces passport system.The Telegraph service begins to take the place of the Pony Express.1862Union army capture Roanoke, Island, Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Jacksonville and New Orleans.Sept. 22 - "Emancipation Proclamation" - eff. Jan. 1, 1863 all slaves held in revolting territory to be free.1863West Virginia becomes a state of U.S.Arizona and Idaho established as U.S. territories.President Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation Jan. 1.A Confederate victory at Chancellorsville, Va.Travellers Insurance Company founded in Hartford, Conn.Roller skating introduced to U.S.Joe Coburn wins American boxing championship at Charleston, Md.National Academy of Sciences founded in Washington, C.D.1864Gen. Ulysses S. Grant succeeds Gen. Halleck as Commander-in-Chief of Union armies.Fen. Sherman marches his army through Georgia defeats Confederates at Atlanta, and occupies Savannah.Abraham Lincoln re-elected President of U.S.U.S. Army massacres Cheyenne and Arapaho at Sand Creek, Colorado Territory.Territory of Montana established in U.S.Nevada becomes a state of U.S.In New York City Confederate agents set fire to Barnum Museum and Astor House.Knights of Pythias founded in Washington, D.C.The words "In God We Trust" appears on U.S. coins for first time.Louis Pasteur develops pasteurizing method for wine and later for milk.1865Richmond, Va. Surrenders to Gen. Grant. April 9 - Confederate States of America surrenders at Appomattox, Va.April 14 - President Lincoln assassinated.Jefferson Davis, President of Confederate States of America captured and put in prison.Civil War in U.S. ends.May 26 - Surrender of last Confederate army at Shreveport, La.Thirteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution abolishes slavery.Pasteur's cure for silkworm disease is successful and it saves the French silk industry.First Carpet sweeper is used.Ku Klux Klan founded at Pulaski, Tenn.First train holdup occurs at North Bend, Ohio.An explosion of "Sultana" on Mississippi River kills 1700 people.First paid firefighters est. in New York City.1866Lodge Ridge Trail, Wyoming the Sioux massacre Fetterman command.Long drive of cattle begins from Texas to Kansas and Nebraska.1867Nebraska becomes a state of U.S.Russia sells Alaska to U.S. of $7,200,000.Gold discovered in Wyoming,USA.American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) est.1868U.S. President Johnson impeached for violating Tenure-of-Office Act but he is acquitted by the Senate.Revolution in Spain. Queen Isabella II flees to France.L.M. Alcott's "Little Women" published.P.D. Armour opens a meat-packing factory in Chicago.Seventh Cavalry massacres Cheyennes at Washita, western Oklahoma.U.S. signs treaty with Sioux at Fort Laramie, Wyoming.U.S. signs treaty with Nez Perce.Christopher Sholes invents the first practical typewriter in Pennsylvania.1869Gen. Ulysses S. Grant inaugurated as 18th President of U.S.First U.S. woman lawyer, Arabella Mansfield admitted to Iowa bar.
1870Revolt in Paris.Italians enter Rome and claim it their capital city.Charles Dickens dies (b. 1812).Jules Verne's "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea" published.Gen. Robert E. Lee, of the Confederate army dies (b.1807).A cartoon of a donkey is used to symbolize the Democratic Party in U.S.1871Italian Law of Guarantees allows the pope to have possession of Vatican."The Greatest Show on Earth" P.T. Barnum's circus opens in Brooklyn, N.Y.Population: Germany 41 million; U.S. 39 million; Ireland 5.4 million; Italy 26 million.White Star Line launched S.S. "Oceanic" the first of the large modern luxury liners.Indian Appropriation act nullifies all treaties.Chicago is devastated by a out of control fire. 1872Grant reelected President of U.S.Jules Vern's "Around the World in 80 Days" published.Yellowstone National Park est.Mark Twain's "Roughing It" pub. 1873Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss patent blue jeans.Barbed wire invented.1874H. Solomon introduces pressure-cooking methods for canning foods in the U.S.Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children founded by E.T. Gerry in New York.A cartoon of an elephant symbolizes the Republican Party in U.S.1875Han Christian Andersen, famous author dies.Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" published.Rioting takes place in San Franciso against the Chinese.1876First tennis tournament in U.S.Gen. Custer and his men are wiped out at the Little Bighorn.Colorado becomes a state of U.S.First Electric street lighting in U.S.Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone.1877Russia declares war on Turkey.First public telephones in U.S.Frozen meat is shipped from Argentina to Europe for the first time.
The Readers Companion To American History. Boston
The Time Tables of History. New York.
Lexicon Univ. Ency. New York.